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Source: The provisions of this 112.32 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 Tex Reg 5063. Astronomy, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit). Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

The student is expected to: (A) identify how energy flows and matter cycles through both fresh water and salt water aquatic systems, including food webs, chains, and pyramids; and (B) evaluate the factors affecting aquatic population cycles. The student understands how human activities impact aquatic environments.

The student is expected to: (A) predict effects of chemical, organic, physical, and thermal changes from humans on the living and nonliving components of an aquatic ecosystem; (B) analyze the cumulative impact of human population growth on an aquatic system; (C) investigate the role of humans in unbalanced systems such as invasive species, fish farming, cultural eutrophication, or red tides; (D) analyze and discuss how human activities such as fishing, transportation, dams, and recreation influence aquatic environments; and (E) understand the impact of various laws and policies such as The Endangered Species Act, right of capture laws, or Clean Water Act on aquatic systems.

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Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled.

The student is expected to: (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student; (B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials; (C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services; (D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and (E) describe the connection between astronomy and future careers. The student recognizes the importance and uses of astronomy in civilization. The student is expected to: (A) observe and record the apparent movement of the Sun and Moon during the day; (B) observe and record the apparent movement of the Moon, planets, and stars in the nighttime sky; and (C) recognize and identify constellations such as Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Orion, Cassiopeia, and constellations of the zodiac. The student is expected to: (A) observe and record data about lunar phases and use that information to model the Sun, Earth, and Moon system; (B) illustrate the cause of lunar phases by showing positions of the Moon relative to Earth and the Sun for each phase, including new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, third quarter, and waning crescent; (C) identify and differentiate the causes of lunar and solar eclipses, including differentiating between lunar phases and eclipses; and (D) identify the effects of the Moon on tides. The student is expected to: (A) compare and contrast the factors essential to life on Earth such as temperature, water, mass, and gases to conditions on other planets; (B) compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, natural satellites, and geological activity; (C) relate the role of Newton's law of universal gravitation to the motion of the planets around the Sun and to the motion of natural and artificial satellites around the planets; and (D) explore the origins and significance of small solar system bodies, including asteroids, comets, and Kuiper belt objects. The student knows the role of the Sun as the star in our solar system.

The student is expected to: (A) research and describe the use of astronomy in ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians, Mayans, Aztecs, Europeans, and the native Americans; (B) research and describe the contributions of scientists to our changing understanding of astronomy, including Ptolemy, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and Hubble, and the contribution of women astronomers, including Maria Mitchell and Henrietta Swan Leavitt; (C) describe and explain the historical origins of the perceived patterns of constellations and the role of constellations in ancient and modern navigation; and (D) explain the contributions of modern astronomy to today's society, including the identification of potential asteroid/comet impact hazards and the Sun's effects on communication, navigation, and high-tech devices. The student is expected to: (A) identify the approximate mass, size, motion, temperature, structure, and composition of the Sun; (B) distinguish between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission, and identify the source of energy within the Sun as nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium; (C) describe the eleven-year solar cycle and the significance of sunspots; and (D) analyze solar magnetic storm activity, including coronal mass ejections, prominences, flares, and sunspots. The student knows the characteristics and life cycle of stars.

The student is expected to: (A) identify sources and determine the amounts of water in a watershed, including rainfall, groundwater, and surface water; (B) identify factors that contribute to how water flows through a watershed; and (C) identify water quantity and quality in a local watershed. The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems.